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Yes, and especially so for bottle‐fed infants. Infant formulas contain manganese, and if prepared with

water that also contains manganese, the infant may get a higher amount than the rest of the family. In addition, infants appear to absorb more manganese than older people but excrete less. This adds up to greater potential for exposure in the very young. Since manganese’s effects on the developing nervous system have not been adequately studied, it is especially important for pregnant women and young children to have drinking water below the manganese Action Level of 0.3 mg/L.


EPA will also consider the health effects in its regulatory determination and evaluate potential risks to children and infants based on recent studies (81 FR 81099).


If you have a water concentration greater than 0.3 mg/L, you should install a water treatment system or reverse osmosis and use it for all food preparation, especially for making infant formula.

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